Chambers started the game at right-back, while teammate James Ward-Prowse captained the side and was deployed in midfield.
And it was 18-year-old Calum who broke the deadlock just after the half-hour, when his low ball from a tight angle deceived Turkey goalkeeper Onurcan Piri and snuck inside the far post.
Chambers was substituted 20 minutes from full time, while Ward-Prowse remained on the pitch for the entirety of the match on his first appearance as captain.
Utility man Calum now has six Under-19 caps to his name, with last night's goal being his second for Noel Blake's side. Ward-Prowse, meanwhile, was making his fourth appearance for the Under-19s.
Last night's game was England's final warm-up for their 2013 UEFA European Under-19 Championship Elite Round qualifying fixtures against Scotland, Belgium and Georgia in May.
Chambers and Ward-Prowse will now return to Southampton ahead of Easter weekend fixtures for the Saints First Team and Under-21s.
Meanwhile, at Under-21 level, Saints defender Nathaniel Clyne started for England against Romania at Wycombe Wanderers' Adams Park ground.
The right-back put in a resilient performance before being replaced by Adam Smith 16 minutes from time as Stuart Pearce's side ran out three-nil winners.
The game was the Young Lions' penultimate friendly before this summer's UEFA European Under-21 Championships in Israel.
Clyne will hope to feature again on Monday evening, when England take on Austria at the Amex Stadium in Brighton.
Luke Shaw was named in the England Under-21 squad for these two friendlies, but pulled out earlier this week after picking up a knock during Southampton's win over Liverpool last weekend.
Four more Saints players are hoping to be in international action today – the full run-down of who is playing where and when can be found below:
Friday 22nd March 2013, 4.05pm GMT
MAYA YOSHIDA: JAPAN vs Canada – Friendly (Khalifa International Stadium – Doha, Qatar)
Friday 22nd March 2013, 5pm GMT
VEGARD FORREN: NORWAY vs Albania – 2014 FIFA World Cup UEFA Qualifying Group E (Ullevaal Stadion – Oslo, Norway)
Friday 22nd March 2013, 6.45pm GMT
ARTUR BORUC: POLAND vs Ukraine – 2014 FIFA World Cup UEFA Qualifying Group H (Stadion Narodowy – Warsaw, Poland)
Friday 22nd March 2013, 10pm GMT
URUGUAY vs Paraguay – 2014 FIFA World Cup CONMEBOL Qualifying (Estadio Centenario – Montevideo, Uruguay)
Saturday 23rd March 2013, 3pm GMT
STEVEN DAVIS: NORTHERN IRELAND vs Russia – 2014 FIFA World Cup UEFA Qualifying Group F (Windsor Park – Belfast, Northern Ireland)
Sunday 24th March 2013, 1pm GMT
EMMANUEL MAYUKA: Lesotho vs ZAMBIA – 2014 FIFA World Cup CAF Qualifying Second Round Group D (Setsoto Stadium – Maseru, Lesotho)
Monday 25th March 2013, 7.30pm GMT
NATHANIEL CLYNE: ENGLAND U21 vs Austria U21 – Friendly (Amex Stadium – Brighton, England)
Tuesday 26th March 2013, 4pm GMT
MAYA YOSHIDA: Jordan vs JAPAN - 2014 FIFA World Cup AFC Qualifying Fourth Road Group B (King Abdullah Stadium – Amman, Jordan)
Tuesday 26th March 2013, 6.45pm GMT
ARTUR BORUC: POLAND vs San Marino – 2014 FIFA World Cup UEFA Qualifying Group H (Stadion Narodowy – Warsaw, Poland)
Tuesday 26th March 2013, 7.45pm GMT
STEVEN DAVIS: NORTHERN IRELAND vs Israel – 2014 FIFA World Cup UEFA Qualifying Group F (Windsor Park – Belfast, Northern Ireland)
Tuesday 26th March 2013, 11.30pm GMT
GASTÓN RAMÍREZ: Chile vs URUGUAY – 2014 FIFA World Cup CONMEBOL Qualifying (Estadio Monumental David Arellano – Santiago, Chile)